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Iroquois confederacy

Acculturation and Assimilation

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Mide members were also reputed to use "bad medicine" to cause sickness or death. Mide priests carried personal medicine bundles, cloth squares, or cloth or yarn bags enclosing one or more decorated animal skins called medicine bags. Specific types of skins were associated with each of the Mide degrees. At the first level, the Mide priest would have a medicine bag made from the skin of an otter, marten, mink, or weasel. Objects found in medicine bags included shells, bear claws decorated with ribbons, glass beads, kinikinik native tobacco , carved figures, dried roots, and herbs.

Mide songs and instructions were recorded on birch bark scrolls that were placed under the care of an appointed guardian priest. In the early nineteenth century, many Ojibwa became followers of the Shawnee Prophet and his multitribe Shawano cult whose members advocated a return to traditional living and replacing Mide rites with new ceremonies. The Prophet was also known as Lalawethika Laulewasika or Tenskwatawa and was the brother of the Shawnee warrior Tecumseh.

Army troops in at the battle of Tippecanoe. Christianity was adopted slowly, but most modern Ojibwa are Roman Catholics or Protestant Episcopalians. Conflict arose between full-blooded Ojibwa, who tended to follow a more traditional lifestyle focused on Mide or Episcopalian values, and the mixed-blood progressive Ojibwa, who typically were Roman Catholic and followed a more acculturated lifestyle.

The BIA often settled disagreements between the two factions by siding with the progressives who promoted majority culture values such as agronomy and small business enterprises. Ojibwa culture dictated that excess goods be shared with the less fortunate. With the arrival of the fur trade, the Ojibwa learned to barter for goods that generally could be consumed within a year. They first earned money through the sale of land or timber rights. Since saving money was not a tradition and the amount they received was low, incomes were disposable and might be barely sufficient for a meager living.

Reservation life led to reliance on government assistance. Modern Ojibwa live on reservations and in a variety of nonreservation areas, rural, suburban, and urban. Like other Native peoples, the Ojibwa, particularly those on reservations, have high rates of unemployment.

They may support themselves through seasonal work, including forestry, farming, tourism, trapping, and wild ricing. Particularly since the s reservations also support small businesses: With the passage of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act in , reservations were accorded new employment venues related to gaming, including bingo halls, casinos, and spin-off businesses such as gas stations, hotels, and restaurants.

While there is some opposition to gaming, profits have contributed to higher employment levels and income. Some reservations have passed employment rights ordinances requiring employers on reservations to give preference to tribal members in hiring, training, and promotion. Treaty rights allow modern Ojibwa to hunt, fish, and harvest rice on lands once belonging to their ancestors.

The Ojibwa right to use the natural resources of reservation lands ceded to the government was reaffirmed by the U. In federal judge James Doyle found that these rights extended to the use of traditional methods and that the Ojibwa had the right to use their natural resources to the extent that they could support a modest standard of living.

Federal policy emphasized the assimilation of the Ojibwa into U. This policy has taken the following forms: Until the Ojibwa tribes were viewed as sovereign nations. As such, the legal relationship between the Ojibwa and national governments and their citizens was largely defined by treaties. A major treaty was signed by Lakota Sioux and Ojibwa representatives at Prairie du Chien in present-day Wisconsin in to stop fighting between the two nations and establish boundaries.

In another treaty set the boundary between Ojibwa and Menominee land. The Ojibwa ceded or sold land rights in Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin to the federal government in a number of treaties, including one signed in that established permanent Ojibwa reservations in three states: Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Bands were dispersed geographically, with members spread out in different reservations. In exchange for land or natural resources, the Ojibwa received annuities or annual payments of goods, livestock, food staples, clearance of debt with fur traders or fur company stores, and the services of blacksmiths, physicians, saw millers, and teachers.

Federal and state legislation replaced treaty making in Later some reservations were created by executive order or by public act. Some reservations closely followed traditional Ojibwa boundaries, while others were established in previously unsettled areas. In the s non-Native Americans put forward a plan to move all Minnesotan Ojibwa to a new reservation in the northwest corner of the state.

Members of the four bands living in Minnesota were eventually relocated to the White Earth Reservation, beginning in The history of White Earth is a particularly disruptive one, with much of the land initially designated for the Ojibwa lost through improper taxation and swindling.

The General Allotment Act of , also known as the Dawes Act, outlined national adherence to allotment, a policy of encouraging assimilation to white culture, primarily through the adoption of agriculture as a means of subsistence, and the allotment or parcelling out of land to individuals rather than to communities, bands, tribes or nations.

After Ojibwa families took their allotments, unallotted land on reservations was then sold to the public. The Dawes Act not only severely restricted communal lands and traditional cultural patterns, it opened up huge tracts of native lands to white settlement and exploitation.

Arguably, this was as much the reason for the Act as the desired assimilation of native peoples. Rather than converting the Ojibwa to self-sufficient living, the allotment system resulted in the loss of Native-held land. There were also environmental and cultural reasons the Ojibwa did not succeed as farmers.

In some reservation areas the land was sandy, rocky, swampy, or heavily wooded, and the weather limited the varieties of crops that could mature during the short growing season. All Native Americans, including the Ojibwa, became U. Until this time, Ojibwa could attain citizenship through marriage to a non-Native American or by serving in World War I.

In the passage of the Indian Reorganization Act reversed the allotment system, and tribes held elections to decide whether to reorganize their governments. In six of the seven Minnesota reservations incorporated as the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe. Red Lake, which elected not to join the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, is still known for its adherence to traditional culture. The Red Lake Reservation was excluded from the Nelson Act, and, while it did sell some land to the United States, the original tribal areas remained the property of the entire tribe.

The six reservations in Wisconsin are governed separately, as are the westernmost Ojibwa in North Dakota and Montana. There are three Ojibwa tribal groups in Michigan. The Keweenaw Bay Indian Community includes three bands: In the s Ojibwa men and women were employed in federal conservation, construction, and manufacturing projects organized under the Civil Works Administration and the Civil Conservation Corps, Indian Division.

Ojibwa also received vocational training through Works Progress Administration programs. This brought some economic relief to reservation areas hit hard by the depression. After World War II federal policy toward Native Americans once again promoted assimilation and integration, a setback for the New Deal philosophy encouraging Native culture and autonomy.

Like the allotment system, relocation focused on individual Ojibwa rather than tribal group and Native culture. Ojibwa were encouraged to move off reservations to assimilate with non-Native culture in urban areas in order to reduce the need for federal support.

The policy of promoting Native self-sufficiency was termed "self-determination. Federal legislation in the s, most notably the Indian Education Act of , the Indian Self-Determination Act of , and the Education Assistance Act of , provided funding for culturally based education and afforded tribes more direct control of programs once administered by the BIA. A modern proponent of the Native warrior ethic, AIM supported tribal civil rights through enforced reform rather than legislation.

Activism took a different form in the s and the s, with the Ojibwa seeking to enforce treaty rights and working in the legal arena. Traditional Ojibwa governance followed a multitiered system of elders, civil chiefs, and when necessary war chiefs. Elders—older and respected tribe members—played vital roles in decision making and educating younger members of the band. Civil chiefs could inherit their position or be nominated.

Elders met in councils to identify a potential civil chief who would manage day-to-day operations. The nominee, who could be female or male, could accept the invitation to serve as civil chief, though such acceptance was not mandatory. Chiefs had official assistants, including messengers and orators. Civil chiefs could also summon the council of elders to request assistance.

Councils of chiefs and elders from a number of bands met to discuss major decisions that would affect more than one band. War chiefs were self-appointed; a war chief was any man who could convince others to join him in battle. Adult men and women were part of the general council, and while votes were not tallied, each individual could join in the discussion at tribal meetings.

Late twentieth-century reservation areas are striving for home rule—the right to set and follow laws of their own making. There are three districts on each reservation, each of which elects a representative to the RBC.

The entire reservation also elects officials: Members of the RBC serve four-year terms. The RBC discusses approval of loans, petitions requesting enrollment of official membership in the tribe, and issues relating to economic development and sends reports to the U. Secretary of the Interior. Two members from each of the six reservations comprising the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe also serve on the statewide Tribal Executive Committee TEC , which meets every three months.

The Red Lake Reservation has a tribal council consisting of three officers chairperson, secretary, and treasurer elected from the entire tribal membership and eight council members, two elected from each of four districts.

Red Lake also maintains traditional governance through an advisory council of descendants of civil chiefs. Modern versions of intertribal councils also exist. Representatives meet at annual conferences. The Ojibwa culture has traditionally revered the warrior.

The Ojibwa often engaged in battles with and against other Native peoples and joined non-Native Americans in their fighting. Their role during the Revolutionary War was negligible. During the War of , Ojibwa living west of Lake Superior sided with the Americans, while those living in present-day Michigan sided with the British. Ojibwa men also served in active duty. Ojibwa men served during World War II , and both men and women moved to urban areas for employment in war industries.

The grand entrance march at many powwows begins with an honor guard of Ojibwa war veterans. Ojibwa may still be awarded eagle feathers in recognition of extraordinary achievement. The Ojibwa have made a number of significant contributions to American life: The English language contains a number of Ojibwa words moccasin, moose and place-names Mackinaw, Michigan, Mesabi.

Many Ojibwa contributions evolved over centuries, before they could be acknowledged by written record. Notable Ojibwa men and women, primarily those living in the late twentieth century, and their achievements are identified below.

White Earth enrollee Will Antell — has served as an educational consultant on Native education for the State of Minnesota. Edward Benton-Banai — directs the Heart of the Earth Survival School in Minneapolis and has written a series of coloring books to teach Ojibwa culture to young people. Lester Jack Briggs, Jr. After completing her Ph. Modern scholars have increasingly turned to tribal elders, including Maude Kegg — , for instruction in the Anishinabe culture and language.

Both were instrumental in organizing events such as the Trail of Broken Treaties caravan to Washington, D. His controversial conviction is examined in the film Incident at Oglala. A number of foreign countries and organizations regard Peltier as a prisoner of conscience.

Author and poet Louise Erdrich — is the best-known modern Ojibwa writer. Poet, novelist, and journalist, Jim Northrup, Jr. A collection of his poems and short stories was published as Walking the Rez Road , and his humorous and often biting commentary appears in a column, "Fond du Lac Follies," published in The Circle and News from Indian Country. A poet and novelist, his writing centers on traditional culture and includes such works as The Everlasting Sky: Narrative Histories ; Interior Landscapes: Published by the Minneapolis American Indian Center, this monthly publication provides international, national, and local news relevant to Indian concerns and tracks issues of importance to the Ojibwa.

This page quarterly publication reports on GLIFWC activities and on a broader range of issues of importance to the Ojibwa, including antitreaty activity, treaty support, Indian education, Native culture, Native rights, and major federal legislation.

The Commission comprises five divisions: Founded in , it is an organization with representatives from more than 20 tribes. MCGLNAS promotes the study and preservation of woodland tribal culture and sponsors annual powwows, conferences, and workshops. Located within the Newberry Library, it provides access to scholarly material in the E. Ayer Collection; the Center sponsors seminars, exhibits, summer institutes, and fellowships, and publishes occasional papers, bibliographies, and monographs.

The headquarters of the Minnesota Historical Society, it includes an extensive research and archival collection on the Native peoples of the state.

Among its vast and varied exhibits on the Ojibwa is a detailed exhibit on wild ricing. Minnesota Historical Society Press, Dover, originally published as Uses of Plants by the Chippewa Indians, Minnesota Historical Society Press, originally published, The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents: University of Nebraska Press, Columbia University Press, Summer in the Spring: University of Oklahoma Press, Wild Rice and the Ojibway People. Minnesota Historical Press, History of the Ojibway People.

KEY ISSUES Key issues facing the Ojibwa include economic development to reduce unemployment, the defense of the wild rice industry from commercial growers, improved medical treatment to combat illnesses such as diabetes and alcoholism, better management of natural resources, protection of treaty rights and attainment of sovereignty, and increased emphasis on higher education to train specialists and renew cultural ties.

CUISINE Native cuisine was closely influenced by the seasons, as the Ojibwa changed camps in seminomadic pattern to locate themselves closer to food sources.

Language Spoken Ojibwa or Ojibwemowin is an Algonquin language with regional dialectical differences. Family and Community Dynamics In traditional Ojibwa culture, an individual lived in a band and was a member of a clan. Religion While some aspects of religious observance were communal, traditional Ojibwa religious practice was focused on inward personal experience. Employment and Economic Traditions Ojibwa culture dictated that excess goods be shared with the less fortunate.

Politics and Government Federal policy emphasized the assimilation of the Ojibwa into U. Individual and Group Contributions The Ojibwa have made a number of significant contributions to American life: Box 9, Odanah, Wisconsin James Schlender, Executive Director.

Box , Muncie, Indiana Sources for Additional Study Broker, Ignatia. Thank you for the very informative thesis on the Ojibwa Tribe. I am reasearching descriptive meanings of dream catchers, and found your www page. I would like to have seen photos of the Native dress style. Recently, I was able to attend the Brule concert, that also included various tribal dancers. Hey I really thank you, this website helped me with my project!! But i need to know What technologies did they develop??

I am very interested in art that expresses the chippewa-cree way of life. Thank you for the informative site. Also, the spiritual ways of the indians. I am still looking for the latter. I am from North Dakota, I thought there were alot of facts and who ever wrote this did a great job. I went to your site because I was interested in the meaning of a couple of terms that I had heard used recently and found out that the word for medicine woman was indeed the one used.

Her name is Vicki Whitewolf, PhD. If you have any information on her would you please email it to me. I never knew this much i wish you would have given me more information on How the Ojibway are today? I enjoyed reading this site. It has given me good information about my own culture, as well as for my presentation. Thank you so much for this page and information.

I am a partial Native American, Ojibwa, but with not enough blood to register, so any information I can find it helpful, as I wish to live as best I can in the Native American way.

Very informative, many thanks. I have long been looking for this sort of information, it helps one to know who and what you are, and where your history lays. Thanks so much for the insight into the Ojibwa culture past and present. I have since childhood had an interest in this very unique part of our society. I am a non-native person trying to learn some of the language and customs of this tribe. I live right between two reserves here in Owen Sound, Ontario, Canada.

Saugeen is twenty miles west of here, while Cape Croker is thirty miles northwest of here. I meet many of them in downtown Owen Sound. It has been a real pleasure to read this article and I am now following the links contained in it. This page is very intresting to read!.. I am from Manitoulin Island, I know a lot of this already. But the stuff I am not sure of, I find interesting. I have a picture of his tribal elders in front of a teepee as my grandparents are arriving for their summer visit.

My mother is wearing a white dress and the elders are wearing long feather headresses. My grandparents arrived in a buckboard wagon. My grandfather established the first butcher shop in Grand Rapids before my mother was born in I have copies of the newspaper advertising and announcement of this event. I also have a picture of my great grandmother leading a horse, hauling a travois with gifts for her new grandchild, into Grand Rapids.

She is wearing traditional Objibwa dress. I have 2 pairs of baby moccasins with flower beadwork, that she made for my mother by her grandmother. I only have a letter addressed to Merde Clysdale asking about Thomas. I do have more family history and would like to share. I would love to have more information and to know if i have any kinfolk. This site helped me ALOT!

Search on Google "What did the Ojibwa look like" and zero results. You should make it more colorful! Anyway, your site is really good, really really helpful! It gave me enough courage to actually hand my Ojibwa project in! Tee hee tee hee, this websight gave me all the anwsers! Hi, I am Ojibwae and from Wiarton area. Britain did not fight alone, the war also involved many countries.

World War II involved 61 countries with 1. Fifty million people lost their lives and hundreds of millions people were injured. After World War One ended in , Germany had to give up land and was banned from having armed forces. In the German people voted for a leader named Adolf Hitler , who led a political party in Germany called the National Socialists or Nazis. Hitler promised to make his country great again and quickly began to arm Germany again and to seize land from other countries.

Shortly before 5am on Friday 1st September, , German forces stormed the Polish frontier. Tanks and motorised troops raced into the country over ground, supported by Stuka dive bombers overhead. Facts about the month of August Customs and Traditions Gemstone: Lammas Superstition To bring good luck, farmers would let the first corn bread go stale and then crumble it over the corners of their barns.

Weather-lore, beliefs and sayings The hottest days of the year often fall in August. Royal National Eisteddfod in Wales The Eisteddfod is an older tradition, revived in the 19th century. Unusual Customs Anniversaries August.

Columbus set sail on his first voyage in They made their way to the Canary Islands. The First World War. August — 11 th November The sandwich was named after the Earl of Sandwich. It is said that in approx. Jamaica gained independence in after being a British Colony for over years. The start of the Grouse season in Britain. Britain carries out its last executions before the abolition of capital punishment - Peter Allen is hanged at Walton Prison, Liverpool, and John Walby at Strangeways Prison, Manchester - both convicted murderers.

World War II ends VJ Day - Victory over Japan. The official date for the ceremony to mark the formal surrender of the Japanese to the Allies less than 24 hours earlier.

Corporal punishment in schools is officially banned in Britain, except in independent schools in the private sector.

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